The top-level domain originally intended
for "commercial" entities, but anyone can register a .com domain. This
is the most recognized top-level domain worldwide. Domains that are purchased
that end in .com are generally worth more in value that .net or .org.
The top-level domain originally intended for internet or computer related
domains, but any person can register a domain with a .net extension.
The top-level domain originally intended
for non-profit organizations, but anyone may now register a domain ending in
The top-level domain created for four-year,
degree-granting colleges and universities. Only colleges and universities can
register .edu domains.
The top-level domain created for agencies
and branches of the United States Federal Government. The General Services
Administration (GSA) handles the registration of .gov domain names.
The top-level domain created for United
States military entities.
Other Top Level Domains: A
top-level domain is the part of the domain name located to the right of the dot
(" . "). The most common TLDs are .com, .net and .org. Several new
top-level domains have been added to the menu recently, including, .biz, .info,
.name, and .ws. The top-level domains have certain guidelines attached, but are
for the most part available to any registrant, anywhere in the world. Exceptions
are the restricted TLDs (rTLDs) — which include .aero, .biz, .edu, .mil,
.museum, .name, and .pro — that require the registrant to represent a certain
type of entity, or to belong to a certain community. The .name TLD is available
strictly for individuals, while .edu is reserved for educational entities, such
as universities or high schools. Where appropriate, a top-level domain name can
be of geographic significance and hence only available to registrants in the
locale defined by the TLD. These are called country-code TLDs (ccTLDs) and
include such top-level domains as .bz (Belize),.ca (Canada), .dk (Denmark), .ec
(Ecuador), ie (Republic of Ireland), .uk (United Kingdom), .us (United States),
and .zw (Zimbabwe).
The administrative contact is an individual
authorized to interact with the domain registrar on behalf of the domain name
registrant. The administrative contact should be able to answer questions about
the domain name's registration and the domain name registrant.
An applet is an embedded program on a web
site. Applets are usually written in the coding language called Java. They are
mainly used for creating a virtual or 3-dimensional object that may move or
interact with the web site. It is a small executable module, that normally
doesn't have the complete features and user interface of a normal application.
Java is the language most commonly associated with applets. An applet is like a
small piece of executable code that needs a full application to contain it. The
applet runs inside of the application in a "sand box" or "virtual
machine," which is a set of computer resources and instructions that make
up an environment for the applet's execution.
ASP (Active Server
Server Pages enable web developers to make their sites dynamic with database
driven content. The code is mainly written in VB Script, and it is produced on
the server of the web site instead of the browser of your web site visitors. The
server reads the ASP code and then translates it to raw HTML. This means that
the web site owner doesn't have to worry about the visitor having the right
tools to view the web site's dynamic content. The only downfall to ASP is that
since it is run from the server, it takes longer for the pages to load because
there are more steps involved in translating the code.
The process of providing audio content on a
web site. This takes up a nice amount of bandwidth, especially if you get a lot
of visitors at your site. Some hosts do not allow audio or video streaming
because of this. If you are going to want audio on your site, you should make
sure that your host supports audio streaming first. This is usually stated in
An automated program that acknowledges
receipt of an e-mail message, and then sends back a previously prepared email to
the sender, letting them know it was received or that certain actions are being
taken. Most of you probably already have a basic idea of what this is when you
go on vacation and you create an auto response at your work to let everyone that
emails you know that you will be away for the next week. Autoresponders are
frequently used to handle requests for additional information or to confirm
sales or other online transactions. Once you configure your autoresponder, it
sends e-mail with no further action required on your part, making your web site
interactive around the clock.
In the general sense, this means the main network connections
that comprise the Internet.
Web hosts back up data on their servers.
Many host packages offer backups every 24 hours. This is supposed to prevent the
loss of data should something happen to the server.
This is the amount of data that is sent through a connection
during a set period of time. It is usually measured in bits per second. If you
have a large web site, with many visitors, you will need a lot more bandwidth
than someone with a one page web site that gets 2 visitors a month. Some hosting
plans offer unlimited bandwidth, but most have limits or will just make you pay
for extra bandwidth because if a site is clogging their servers with visitors,
they want to get compensated for that.
The billing contact is the person
designated to receive the invoice for domain name registration and
re-registration fees. The billing contact must be a reliable, trustworthy source
that will pay the re-registration dues on time. If you decide to register your
domain through a host where THEY fill out the information, please make sure that
they specify YOU as administrative and billing contacts and not THEM.
Browser (Web Browser):
It is software used to locate web
pages on the WWW and then display them on your computer monitor. Once connected
to the Internet, your browser fetches documents from various web servers,
translates the HTML, and displays the results for you.
A lot of hosts offer a Catch-all Email account. This means that
firstname.lastname@example.org will go to you. This way, you can have Sales@abc.com,
Support@abc.com, WebMaster@abc.com, and so on - with all of it going to the root
email account. This also helps when a user makes a typo in the email address, as
long as they get the domain correct.
CGI: (Common Gateway
CGI is a program that tanslates data from a web server and then displays that
data on a web page or in an email. CGI involves the transfer of data
between a server and a CGI program (called a script). This allows HTML pages to
interact with other programming applications. These scripts make web pages
interactive. Page counters, forms, guest books, random text/images and other
features can be driven by CGI scripts. Some servers have
pre-installed/pre-defined CGI scripts, meaning that the scripts are already
installed on the server for you to use on your site. Some servers permit
user-defined or custom CGI scripts, which means the site owner creates his/her
own CGI script and runs this custom made script on the web site. Not all servers
allow user-defined (custom) scripts for security reasons..
The web host will allow you to develop a
chat room or other type of chat service for your visitors. Be sure to check with
the web host company about the details of the chat services offered. Some
servers permit you to configure the service, and others pre-configure everything
for you while others do not allow chat rooms at all.
This term is used to describe the ratio of
clicks to impressions on an advertisement, usually a banner ad. If a banner has
been shown 100 times and 3 people click on it, it will have a 3% click through
An application which simplifies database
queries by allowing for a simpler programming language to handle functions
between the user's browser, the server, and the database.
Basically this is just owning a server but
having it at another location for the use of their internet connection. This is
great for people who want to own their own server, but do not want the hassle or
security risk of maintaining that server in their environment.
An online package of tools permitting easy
site management and editing.
A message given to a Web browser by a Web server. The
browser stores the message in a text file called cookie.txt. The message is then
sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server.
The main purpose of cookies is to identify users and possibly prepare customized
Web pages for them. When you enter a Web site using cookies, you may be asked to
fill out a form providing such information as your name and interests. This
information is packaged into a cookie and sent to your Web browser which stores
it for later use. The next time you go to the same Web site, your browser will
send the cookie to the Web server. The server can use this information to
present you with custom Web pages. So, for example, instead of seeing just a
generic welcome page you might see a welcome page with your name on it.
CSS (Cascading Style
to add more functionality to simple HTML pages. Internet Explorer 3.0 and up
support a good portion of CSS, while Netscape 4.0 and up supports a small amount
of CSS - a fully compliant browser does not exist yet.
Database Support: General
way of saying the server supports various database functions. Some
commonly used database programs are MySQL, Access, Oracle, and FoxPro.
Databases can be very difficult to configure properly. Before you sign up with a
web host, first inquire if the host can support your database needs.
This is the amount of data that is transferred from an account as visitors view
the pages of the web site. If you have a web site with lots of video, audio, and
images that gets many visitors per day, you would have to make sure that you
choose a host that will allow large amounts of data to be transferred. If you
choose a host that only allows 200 MB of data transfer per month, and your site
transferred 500 MB per month, then the host may stop half of your visitors from
viewing your site and you could lose potential customers. Your best bet is to
try to find a host that offers unlimited data transfer or at least a Gig of
transfer. A gig is more than enough for most web sites. As a general rule, 500
MB of data transfer is equivalent to 20,00o page views.
A more expensive type of account in which the web hosting company provides you
with an ENTIRE set-up of server hardware for your use. This usually means a much
faster loading time for your site because the entire computer is
"dedicated" to running the server software. This is different from
most other hosting accounts in which your web site will share space on a server
with many other web sites, called a virtual server.
DNS service for a domain is provided without there being a web site for that
The unique name that identifies an Internet
site. Domain Names always have 2 or more parts, separated by dots. The part on
the left is the most specific, and the part on the right is the most general. A
given machine may have more than one Domain Name but a given Domain Name points
to only one machine. For example, the domain names:
can all refer to the same machine, but each
domain name can refer to no more than one machine.
It is also possible for a Domain Name to exist
but not be connected to an actual machine. This is often done so that a group or
business can have an Internet e-mail address without having to establish a real
Internet site. In these cases, some real Internet machine must handle the mail
on behalf of the listed Domain Name. Also, just to note, the .com extensions are
worth more in value because they are the most widely used and the most well
known. It is also a smart marketing decision. If your ebusiness should ever move
up to television and/or radio advertising, and even Internet advertising, most
of the general Internet public remembers .com extensions. And if they don't
remember the extension at all but they do remember the domain name, they will
more than likely type the .com in their browser. Technically, the domain name is
a name that identifies an IP address. To most of us, it simply means
www.yourname.com. Because the Internet is based on IP addresses, not
domain names, web servers depend on a Domain Name System (DNS) to translate
domain names into IP addresses. Simply stated, domain names allow people to find
your web site by name rather than by numerical address.
Domain Name System (DNS):
A distributed database of information that
is used to translate domain names into Internet Protocol (IP) numbers (usually
looks something like 123.456.789.101). In other words, computers need numbers in
order to function. The computer itself does not care whether you are ebay.com or
yahoo.com. It has no idea how to find the name, it needs a number that
identifies that name. So when you buy a domain, say www.yourname.com, it is
nothing until you get it hosted somewhere and until that host assigns a number
to your domain
Seems to be an overused term. It usually
refers to doing business on the WWW. E-commerce packages offered by web host
companies often include a shopping cart (lets shoppers select purchases), secure
server for credit card transactions, etc. Other options are often included, such
as software to develop an online product catalog and marketing services.
Electronic mail permits the sending of
primarily text-based information and html across the Internet.
Also called a forwarding account (see
below). Allows you to appear to have an e-mail address on a certain domain, yet
in reality the e-mail is forwarded to your real e-mail account. It allows you to
have your e-mail automatically forwarded to any e-mail address you specify. This
is a great way to get your mail when you're out of town, etc.
E-Mail POP Account:
An actual e-mail account on your web host's
e-mail server. POP stands for Post Office Protocol.
A password that has been scrambled to protect it from being discovered and used
by someone other than the person to whom it belongs.
Term used to describe when a banner
advertisement is loaded on a web page and displayed to a user. Also refered to
An Internet software tool for locating
people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to
non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an
account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger
requests, but many do.
FP (Frontpage) Extensions:
This simply refers to Microsoft Front
Page server extensions. The FP2K indicates that the server supports the latest
version of the program, MS Front Page 2000. These extensions can be
thought of as "mini programs" that allow features of a web site
created with MS Front Page to operate smoothly. It is possible to use MS Front
Page to create a web site and host that site on a server that doesn't offer FP
extensions, however some of the powerful features of the program cannot be used
in these web sites. See Microsoft's
Front Page site for more information.
Front Page is an HTML editor made by
Microsoft. It is commonly used to create web pages.
FTP (File Transfer
is a way of uploading and downloading files across the Internet. Most web sites
are uploaded to the Internet by means of an FTP program. This is how the web
site you create on your computer at home is transferred (uploaded) to the
Internet. Some software, such as Microsoft
Front Page, does not require use of an FTP program but the use of most any
other HTML editor requites the use of and FTP Program. There is a free FTP
program called WS_FTP and you can download it at download.com.
There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible
repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the
account name anonymous, thus these sites are called anonymous FTP servers.
Equivalent to approximately 1000 megabytes.
Host (Name Server):
When you hear the term "host" in
the Internet world, it is referring to an Internet company that has the required
servers and software to connect domain names to (IP) Internet Protocol numbers
so that your site can be viewed by the public when they type your domain in
their browser window. Basically this is where you house your site, and you
usually have to pay a monthly or annual fee for this service. There are free
hosts, but in most cases, in order to use their services you must put one of
their advertisement banners on your site, and most of them limit what you can do
with your site. Sometimes it is better to pay $8/month for a host because it
gives you more freedom and is ad free with the exception of the ads you post
Stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. This
is the code that web pages are written in. The next time you visit a web site,
go to View > Source on your browser to take a look at what the coding of a
web site looks like.
HTTP (HyperText Transport
protocol for transfering hypertext files across the Internet. Requires a HTTP
client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP is
the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW). You see it
everytime you type a web site in your browser http://...
A way to embed a URL into an object
(such as text or an image) so that when the object is clicked, the browser
retrieves the file specified. When you click them, you are taken to other files
or another portion of a same file or to another website.
IMAP (Internet Message
Access Protocol): A
protocol for retrieving e-mail messages from an e-mail server. Some versions
allow you to search your e-mail messages for keywords while those messages are
still on your server. Then you can decide which messages you choose to download
to your computer.
Term used to describe when a banner
advertisement is loaded on a web page and displayed to a user. Also refered to
A global network of millions of
Internet Protocol (IP)
Numbers (IP addresses): A
unique number used to specify hosts and networks. Internet Protocol (IP) numbers
are used for identifying machines that are connected to the Internet. They are
sometimes called a dotted quad and are unique numbers consisting of 4 parts
separated by dots, They would look something like this 123.456.789.101. Every
machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not
have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one
or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember.
ISP (Internet Service
company or institution that provides access to the Internet in some form,
usually for money. They will usually allow users to dial up through
a modem, DSL, or cable connection to view the information on the internet.
Access is via SLIP, PPP, or TCP/IP.
InterNIC was the name given to a project
that provided domain name registration services in com, net, org, and edu. Now
that the project has ended, other companies can now offer domain registration.
Companies such as Network Solutions and Register.com now do what InterNic used
IRC (Internet Relay
massive network of text-based chat channels (chat rooms) across the world.
Java (Java Script):
A programming language developed by Sun
Microsystems. Originally was named OAK. Small Java applications are called
applets. It is a scripting language which enables web designers to add dynamic,
interactive elements to a web site.
Many web host providers offer software
to assist you in operating a mailing list. This software usually includes
automated subscription requests and subscriber database management.
Approximately a million bytes or 1024
This means that the server offers the components you need to use Microsoft SQL
database in your web site. Other databases of importance are MySQL, ODBC and
MySQL is a database server. It is commonly coupled with PHP to provide a way for
users to access data stored in the database from the web. It is commonly found
on Unix servers.
Also called a host or a name server. A
computer that has both the software and the data needed to resolve domain names
to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. Most name servers have names like
A unique identifier, which can be up
to 10 alpha-numeric characters, assigned to each domain name record, contact
record, and network record in Network Solutions' domain name database. Note that
NIC Handles are specific to Network Solutions and is not a term used for
Registrars in general.
NT servers Servers:
Computers that run Microsoft NT server software as their Operating System.
A program on your computer which runs your
other programs and your hardware. It's what makes everything work from the data
you enter on your keyboard to the output you see on your monitor. It organizes
your programs and data files, and manages your disk drives and peripheral
devices. Windows, DOS and UNIX are examples of operating systems.
Extraction and Report Language):
A popular programming language which has strong text processing capabilities.
PHP is another scripting language. Like ASP, it's commands are embeded within
the HTML of a web page. The commands are executed on the web server, making it
browser independant. The web browser only sees the resulting HTML output of the
POP (Post Office
a method of retrieving e-mail from an e-mail server. Most e-mail
applications (sometimes called an e-mail client) use the POP protocol, although
some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). There are two
versions of POP. The first, called POP2, became a standard in the mid-80's and
requires SMTP to send messages. The newer version, POP3, can be used with or
without SMTP. The newest and most widely used version of POP email is POP3
email. You will see the term POP3 in most of the web hosting plans available
PPP (Point to Point
method of connecting a computer to the Internet.
The designation of "primary"
means that this name server will be used first and will be relied upon before
any of the other name servers.
The format by which data is transferred
between two computers.
A RealServer stream, which allows a web
site owner to broadcast audio and video. Site visitors can experience this audio
and/or video by installing a simple plug-in into their browser. To find out
more, please visit Real.com.
web host company has more than one main connection to the Internet, ensuring
that if one becomes non-functional, Internet connectivity remains intact via the
other main connections.
The individual or organization that
registers a specific domain name. This individual or organization holds the
right to use that specific domain name for a specified period of time, provided
certain conditions are met and the registration fees are paid. This person or
organization is the "legal entity" of that web site.
process through which individuals and organizations obtain a domain name.
Registration of a domain name enables the individual or organization to use that
particular domain name for a specified period of time, or as long as the
required fees are paid.
The charge for registering a Web Address or domain name.
Forms that are used to submit and process
registration requests. These forms, which include the Domain Name Registration
Agreement, Contact Form, and Host Form, are used to register new domain names,
new contacts for domain names, and new hosts (name servers) as well as to update
domain name, contact, and host records. There are both Web versions and plain
text (ASCII) versions of the forms.
The process of renewing a domain name's registration for a specified period of
time. This is accomplished by paying the re-registration fee which covers the
amount of years you are renewing the domain for.
Your web host provider will allow you to
sell all or portions of of the web space (which you are paying for) to others
who want web space. Many web hosting companies have reseller programs.
The term used to describe the process by which domain names are matched with
corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. "Resolution" is
accomplished by a combination of computers and software, which use the data in
the Domain Name System to determine which IP numbers correspond to a particular
domain name. Basically, it is translating a number to the name you see in your
browser for the web site you are visiting.
A machine that has the software and data
needed to locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top-level
List of commands that can be executed
without user interaction. Sometimes used as another term for macro or batch
Second Level Domain:
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next
lower level of the hierarchy underneath the top level domains. In a domain name,
that portion of the domain name that appears immediately to the left of the
.com, .net, .org, etc...) For example, the webhostsonline.com would be the
second level domain for this web site. The top-level domain is .com.
The name server will be used as a backup
for the primary name server in the event that the primary server becomes
A computer, or software package, that
provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other
computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW
or HTTP server, or to the machine on which the software is running. A single
server machine could have several different server software packages running on
it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network. More
specifically, a server is a computer that manages network resources. For
example, a network server would manage network traffic. A file server would
store and serve files.
Server Logs (Traffic
is raw statistical data stored on the server. It contains information such as
how many visitors accessed certain pages of your site, what web sites referred
those visitors to your site, and the domain name of the visitor. This
information is very useful in determining which sections of your web site are
more heavily traveled and what sites are referring traffic to yours.
Something experienced computer users often
request. Permits you to edit your files online in real-time, rather than making
changes to your site offline and then uploading the changes.
SLIP (Serial Line Internet
way of connecting a computer to the Internet.
SMTP (Simple Mail
Transport Protocol): The
main protocol used to send electronic mail on the Internet. Most Internet email
is sent and received using SMTP. SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a
program sending mail and a program receiving mail should interact.
Junk Mail a.k.a. UCE (Unsolicted Commercial Email)):
Often used to refer to the practice of sending out massive amounts of e-mail
promotions or ads which the recipient has not asked to receive. It is a waste of
people's time and network bandwidth and is simply illegal in some part of the
SSI (Server Side
that can be included in web pages that are processed by the web server when a
user requests a file. The command takes the form <!--#include
virtual="/path/to/file"-->. A common use for SSI commands is to
insert a universal menu into all of the pages of the web site so that the menu
only has to be changed once and inserted with SSI instead of changing the menu
on every page.
SSL (Secure Sockets
protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated
communications across the Internet. It is used mostly (but not
exclusively) in communications between web browsers and web servers. URL's that
begin with "https" indicate that an SSL connection will be used. SSL
provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and Message Integrity. In
an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security Certificate,
which each side's software sends to the other. Each side then encrypts what it
sends using information from both its own and the other side's Certificate,
ensuring that only the intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other
side can be sure the data came from the place it claims to have come from, and
that the message has not been tampered with.
Many servers take the information from your server/traffic log and compile it in
a user-friendly, easy-to-read format for you to analyze trends about your web
Telephone or e-mail technical support
provided to a web hosting company's customers. When there's a problem with your
site or your e-mail, you want to be able to get an answer promptly by e-mail or
on the phone.
A connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000 bits-per-second. At maximum
theoretical capacity, a T-1 line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds.
That is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for which you
need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 is the fastest speed commonly used
to connect networks to the Internet.
A leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000 bits-per-second.
This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion video.
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol):
This is a set of communications protocols
to connect hosts on the Internet.
The command and program used to login from one Internet site to another. The
telnet command/program gets you to the login: prompt of another host.
The technical contact is the person or
organization who maintains the primary domain name server. The technical contact
should be able to answer technical questions about the domain name's primary
domain name server.
Third Level Domain:
The next highest level of the
hierarchy underneath the second level domains. In a domain name, that portion of
the domain name that appears two segments to the left of the top-level domain.
For example, the your in your.domain.com.
TLD (Top Level Domain):
This is the suffix on a domain name, such
as .com or .org or .edu. It is the highest level of the hierarchy after
the root. That portion of the domain name that appears to the far right such as
the com in webhostsonline.com.
A computer operating system designed to be used by many people at the same time
(it is multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common operating
system for servers on the Internet.
This indicates whether or not you will
incur additional charges from your web hosting company for high levels of
traffic at your site. Make sure you understand clearly how much traffic
you are allowed to receive monthly before additional charges are assessed
against your account.
standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of
the World Wide Web (WWW). Think of it as a unique address for each of your files
in your web site. A URL looks like this:
The most common way to use a URL is to enter
into a WWW browser program, such as Internet Explorer, Netscape, or Lynx.
The process of providing video data or
content via a web page.
A web server which shares its
resources with multiple users. It's another way of saying that multiple web
sites share the resources of one server.
Some servers offer to create your web site
in addition to hosting it on their server. Be sure to check about the extent of
their expertise, and ask to see sites they've created.
A document on the World Wide Web,
identified by an unique URL.
A computer that serves up (delivers to your
computer) web pages. Web hosting companies offer virtual servers and dedicated
A searchable database maintained by
Registrars which contain information about networks, networking organizations,
domain names, and the contacts associated with them for the com, org, net, edu,
and ISO 3166 country code top-level domains. Also, the protocol, or set of
rules, that describes the application used to access the database.
WWW (World Wide Web):
A portion of the Internet designated to support documents in HTML format.